Frequently Asked Questions about DVD & Blu-ray Authoring, Menu Design, Video Post-ProductionExplore The Authoring House
Can I provide my files on a hard drive and what are the specs?
We recommend solid state hard drive (SSD) formatted for Windows and MAC. If sending a mechanical hard drive, make sure adequate padding is added or the hard drive may be damaged and content lost.
What is authoring?
Authoring is the process of converting video assets (encoding), designing menus, and assembling elements into a master that meets DVD or Blu-ray specifications, to ensure proper functionality on a DVD player, Blu-ray player, computer, laptop, steaming app or mobile device. Authoring combines materials like video, graphics, sound, animation, documents, and files, by using content authoring tools, to join them into a format suitable for viewing. See all of our authoring services or get a custom quote online.
Why would I need authoring?
Video files, as is, will not play on a majority of DVD or Blu-ray players. They need to be formatted (authored) to meet the DVD or Blu-ray specification to ensure proper functionality and playback. For instance, a QuickTime or Mpeg4 video does not meet the DVD specification and will not play in most DVD players. The DVD specification requires a “Video_TS” folder (Blu-ray BDMV) for successful playback. Learn more about DVD encoding.
How long does authoring take?
Authoring turn times at The Authoring House are approximately 5 business days for DVD, and 10 business days for Blu-ray. Turn times are based on our Deluxe Package (this does not include disc manufacturing). Turn times are subject to fluctuation due to work volume and complexity of the project. Multi-page menus, color correction, editing, audio enhancement, subtitle/caption creation will all add to the turn time. Please call 1-800-468-9353 for details and current turn times.
*Rush services are available for an additional charge depending on current work volume. Call for availability and pricing.
What file types can I submit for authoring?
Acceptable Digital formats:
Uncompressed digital video files HD and SD — AVI (Windows Media Codec, Avid DNxHD), QuickTime (ProRes), and mp4. DVD Video can be used but may not yield acceptable results. Generally uncompressed video is the best, but submitted video should be at least the same resolution or quality as your edited master without additional compression added. We recommend you supply contents on an external drive or USB drive.
**To take advantage of our high-end video encoding software, the preferred filetype is a QuickTime (mov) file or AVI. An mp4 may be submitted, but it needs to be in a QuickTime container or wrapper — meaning it has an “.mov” file extension.
Acceptable Tape Formats:
Betacam (Beta) / Betacam SP (BetaSP) / Digital Betacam (DigiBeta) / Betacam SX (BetaSX) / MiniDV (SP mode only) / HDV / DV / DVCAM, 3/4", SVHS and VHS (SP mode only)
These Supported Videotape formats are at additional cost:
1" / DVCPRO/D2, D3, Sony HDCAM/SR, 8mm, Betamax. Please call 1-800-468-9353 for pricing or get a custom quote online.
- We recommend at least one second of black at the beginning of your video before picture and sound starts.
- All audio & video is encoded as is without additional color correction or audio enhancement.
- Standards conversion at additional cost (NTSC/PAL)
- Please call if your video format does not appear in the above list.
How many minutes can I fit on a DVD-5? A DVD-9?
While a good rule of thumb is that it takes about two gigabytes to store one hour of average video, the amount of video a DVD can hold depends on the amount of audio and the type of audio/video compression, as well as the associated audio tracks, menu complexity, and additional material. This means that a DVD-5, DVD-R, or DVD+R can hold up to about 120 minutes of video with standard bit-rate and a 48kHz audio stream. However, we have found that to maximize quality, we recommend no more than 85 minutes on a DVD-5. DVD-9s will hold about 4 hours of video (less than 3 at the optimal quality). See all of our authoring services.
|Capacity (video minutes)
Can my DVD/Blu-ray have Surround Sound? What is AC-3 audio?
DVD/Blu-ray support several configurations of audio, including mono, stereo and "surround". Mono or stereo audio may be uncompressed PCM (equivalent to CD audio) or Dolby Digital format for audio data compression also known as AC-3. For DVD, Multi-channel or surround audio is supported via Dolby Digital in 5.1 or DTS (we cannot encode DTS. This will need to be supplied already encoded). The 5.1 configurations consist of Left, Right, Center, LFE, Left Surround and Right Surround. We do not currently support other audio configurations such as 7.1.
We can accept aiff or wav audio 16 bit 48k (higher bitrates if desired). Audio can be submitted embedded in the video file or separately (stems). 5.1 audio for DVD can be embedded into the video file in the following order:
|Low Frequency Effects
*For Surround Sound we prefer separate stems to ensure proper surround mix. **PCM provides an uncompressed audio source whereas AC-3 is compressed. PCM can result in playback issues on some players. We utilize AC-3 on all DVD projects unless otherwise requested.
Audio supported by Blu-ray:
Linear PCM, Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby TrueHD, DTS, DTS-HD High Resolution, DTS-HD, Master Audio. If supplying other than PCM or Dolby Digital, please call for more information.
What is the difference between the NTSC and PAL Video standard?
SD Video that is intended for viewing on a television, whether on a tape or a DVD, or delivered via satellite or cable, needs to meet the standards of the country in which it will be viewed (NTSC countries 60hz, PAL 50hz). In North America, that is NTSC, (National Television System Committee). NTSC video is 29.97 frames per second or FPS, at a size of 720x486. The NTSC standard is also used in other countries including Japan, South Korea, and most of Central and South America. Europe, China, Australia, and most other Asian countries use another standard known as PAL (Phase Alternation Line). PAL video is 25 FPS, at a size of 768x576. There is a third standard called SECAM, (Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire). There is not a SECAM standard for DVD. Countries using the SECAM standard use PAL for DVDs. The internet has several sources for NTSC/PAL listings of counties and the corresponding standard. We can perform a standards conversion for an additional charge if required. Call us at 1-800-468-9353 for details.
*Most PAL players should play an NTSC DVD but most NTSC players will not play a PAL disc. There are some specialty NTSC devices that can play PAL discs but they are the exception. All computers will play both as long as the Region code is not restricting playback. Please see below for more about Region codes.
Do I need to worry about NTSC and PAL with Blu-ray discs?
Yes. NTSC and PAL use different FPS (frames per second) rates. But the Blu-ray specification clearly defines what frame rates players must support. All PAL players must support frame rates of 23.976, 24, 24.97, 25, 29.97, 30, 59.94, and 60 but NTSC only need to support 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94, and 60 fps. To create a Blu-ray compatible in all players keep your frame rate at 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94, or 60 FPS. Other considerations that may affect compatibility are Region Codes. Please see below for more details about Region Codes.
What is anamorphic?
Anamorphic refers to widescreen (16:9) video that has been horizontally squeezed to fit the NTSC standard 4:3 ratio. The video stream is flagged during the MPEG encoding process to trigger the correct playback ratio from your DVD. On a SD TV the video will be letterboxed (horizontal black bars at the top and bottom) and on an HD TV the video will display in the correct widescreen format.
What are region codes?
A DVD/Blu-ray can be set to be playable in single and/or multiple regions during the authoring stage. DVD/Blu-ray players sold in a particular region will only accept DVDs/Blu-rays authorized for that region. Computer drives operate the same as DVD/Blu-ray players except the region code may not be pre set. The code must be set by the owner and may have a limited number of changes allowed.
Region codes exist for the benefit of the owner or distributor of a DVD/Blu-ray title, and they protect the rights of a distributor in one region from encroachment by a distributor from another region. The region code is an entirely separate issue from the NTSC/PAL video standard which can also affect playback. As a final note on the subject, it is important to remember that region codes can only be set during the authoring process, not during disc manufacturing. Be sure to consult your author prior to completion of your master.
Below is a chart outlining the 8 region codes defined in the DVD specification and the 3 for Blu-ray.
|DVD Region codes
|Countries included in region
|U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories
|Japan, Europe, South Africa and Middle East (including Egypt)
|Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong)
|Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean
|Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia
|Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.)
|Blu-ray Region codes
|Countries included in region
|Americas, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia
|Europe, Middle East, Africa, Australia, New Zealand
|Russia, India, People’s Republic of China, Rest of the World
*NOTE: the video standard (PAL/NTSC) can also restrict playback.
Can you add copy protection to my DVD or Blu-ray master?
For DVD, yes it’s possible. Provided your DVD master does not currently have copy protection, Disc Makers will add it during the DVD manufacturing process (not available on duplicated DVDs). If your master currently has Macrovision or CSS copy protection, it will need to be stripped and a new master created for a cost of $150. For Blu-ray, AACS is mandatory and requires a BDCMF master. The copy protection is added during the Blu-ray manufacturing process and is included in the price of replication at Disc Makers. As with DVD, Blu-ray copy protection is not available with duplication.
How many minutes of video can I fit on a Blu-ray Disc?
|120 mins *approx
|240 mins *approx
*More or less depending on bitrate. Bitrate can affect quality of picture.
Can I use a DVD+R DL for my DVD-9 master?
Yes, The Authoring House accepts Dual Layer (DL) DVD+R masters. We do not recommend this method, as it often results in an unacceptable master. This should only be used if you cannot supply your DVD-9 master in DDP or ISO format. Refer to what file types can we accept for DVD replication for more details.
Do you provide audio enhancement (mastering)?
Audio mastering can greatly improve the quality of your final product and give it a professional sound. Audio mastering can also provide noise reduction, adjust levels, and improve upon the overall master. The original source will determine how much can be accomplished. For best results, original uncompressed audio is preferred. Your DVD may or may not have compressed audio. To have your audio reviewed by our audio engineers at The SoundLAB, please send submissions to [email protected] or call us at 1-800-468-9353 to schedule a free screening.
Color Correction: Can you enhance the quality of my video?
Color correction can add a professional and polished look to your final project. The amount of correction or enhancement possible will be greatly affected by the quality of the original video. Great care should be exercised with lighting and audio when making the original recording. The quality of the camera and lens used will greatly affect the final quality. An uncompressed or 2k image or larger will allow for better “enhancement” results than a mp4 or other “compressed” image. Even though most cameras claim they are HD, the vast differences in CODECs, lenses, and sensors can vary greatly in the final quality. Most cameras compress the image before recording to the storage device. What may be uncompressed HD originally, may not be by the time it is recorded.
*Performing color correction on a DVD master is not desirable as it is a highly compressed file. It is always preferable to work with the original edited video. A DVD can be used for evaluation but the original video is always preferred and will yield more acceptable results.
The Authoring House can improve color and contrast, as well as adjusting color tone to add a look or feel to the final project. Looks like black & white, sepia tone, and blue casts can greatly add to the professional look and feel of your final piece. The original source will determine how much can be accomplished. Call 1-800-468-9353 to ask about a free screening or get a custom quote online. Learn more about our post production services.
What audio formats do you accept?
The Authoring House can accept aiff or wav audio 16 bit 48k (higher bitrates if desired). Audio can be submitted embedded in the video file or separately (stems). 5.1 audio for DVD can be embedded into the video file in the following order:
|Low Frequency Effects
*For surround sound we prefer separate stems to ensure proper surround mix.
What is the difference between SD and HD?
SD or Standard Definition is the predecessor of HD or High Definition video and is characterized by the smaller 720 x 480 interlaced screen size 4:3 ratio and 480 lines of vertical resolution (720 x 576 PAL). HD video is High Definition Video characterized by a higher resolution image and sound at a screen size of 1920 x 1080 (1080 lines of vertical resolution) or 1280 x 720 (720 lines of vertical resolution) the more lines of vertical resolution the higher the image quality. SD video from its lowest resolution to its best would be 480 lines of vertical resolution, 720 HD video, and finally 1080 HD video. The main thing to keep in mind is DVD is SD and Blu-ray is HD, so HD video must be down converted for DVD.
My HD video needs to be down converted to SD. How will that affect the quality?
Down conversion from HD (High Definition) to SD (Standard Definition) means that you will be reducing the resolution of your video or film from 1080 or 720 horizontal lines of resolution to 480 lines of horizontal lines of resolution or SD (PAL 576). Your video will still be high quality SD, but you shouldn't expect it to be the resolution of your HD master. When viewing your SD DVD on an HD set, you will likely notice a reduction in resolution, but no more than any other SD DVD. See all of our services.
What is a Pop-up Blu-ray menu?
As with DVD menus, Blu-ray menus offer an “always-on” style of menu meaning it covers the entire screen. With Blu-ray, there is a second option known as Pop-up menus. With this type, not only is there a full page menu, but the menu information can also “Pop-up” over the actual video/movie while it’s playing. This allows for access to the menu without having to exit the video/movie and jump to a separate menu page. This type of design is more involved than an “always on” menu. Call 1-800-468-9353 for pricing and details or get a custom quote online.
What are TV Safe and Title Safe?
Originally when SD TV was invented, a portion of the picture was hidden behind the bezel or picture frame of the TV. Because of this, certain safe areas (NTSC Action Safe and Title Safe) were created to ensure graphics and important visual information would be visible on a majority of TVs. With the advent of HD flat panel FPM (fixed-pixel-matrix) screens, that issue has been mostly resolved. But due to the fact that a large number of SD tube TVs are still being used, and that the picture area of flat panel TVs can be zoomed and adjusted, we recommend that these guidelines still be observed. Programs like Photoshop™ and other video programs will have special templates or guides that can be added or turned on to make sure graphics and important visual information remain within these areas in your video and DVD menu. See our DVD menu design services.
What is a CODEC?
CODEC stands for Compressor-Decompressor. It is the primary method used in the authoring and playback of DVD/Blu-ray video. A codec is used to reduce file size (compress) so it will fit on a DVD or Blu-ray disc. The video is first compressed to reduce the file size to fit on a disc and then decompressed for playback to try and recreate the original pre-compressed video image. A CODEC is the software device used to accomplish this. There are many different CODECS that can yield a wide variety of results. See our DVD or Blu-ray authoring packages.
Can you add closed captioning? What do I need for closed captioning?
Captions appear as a black box over top of the video and are added during the authoring process. Captions differ from subtitles. Subtitles are used to display language translation whereas captions are used to display information for the deaf and hard of hearing. Captions can only be turned on and off via the TV and cannot be activated from the DVD menu. Captions will also not carry over HDMI cables used to connect HD TVs (RCA connections must be used to ensure compatibility). To ensure HDMI compatibility, SDH (subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing) can be used. SDH captions are activated from the menu or remote.
For standard captions, a properly formatted caption file from a subtitle/caption bureau is required. You may supply a properly formatted file or have us create one at an additional cost. Captions for DVD must be in a “.SCC” file created using the same video we will use for authoring. The same rules of frame rate listed in the section on subtitles apply. Get a custom quote to add captions.
*Captions cannot be added to a finished master without disassembling the master and re-authoring. Additional charges apply.
*Our authoring software for DVD is Scenarist SD. Captions or SDH captions must be created to be compatible with that program. The same rules of frame rate listed in the section on subtitles apply. We utilize Scenarist for Blu-ray authoring. For SDH subtitles, the same rules listed in the section on Blu-ray subtitles apply.
*Blu-ray captions in the traditional sense are not available. A SDH subtitle file (subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing) must be utilized. For SDH subtitles follow the same guidelines outlined in the section on subtitles).
What’s the difference between Roll-up and Pop-on Captions?
There are two types of captions - Roll-up and Pop-on. Roll-up captions “roll” up from the bottom of the screen like movie credits. Each subsequent block of captions roll up pushing the previous text off the screen. Pop-on captions appear to pop on the screen in one solid block, with the next block of captions popping over and replacing the previous. Get a custom quote to add captions.
Can you add subtitles to my DVD/Blu-ray? What do I need for subtitles?
Subtitles are added during the authoring process and differ from captions. Subtitles are used to display language translation whereas captions are used to display information for the deaf and hard of hearing. A properly formatted subtitle file from a subtitle/caption bureau is required. You may supply a properly formatted file or have us create one at an additional cost. Subtitles must be supplied as .SST file format and must include image files for each corresponding subtitle instance (image formats must be BMP, TIFF, JPEG). Subtitles must be timed to the video source they are sending us. If they make changes to the source after the subtitles or captions are created, they may not sync.
Subtitles must be created using the same exact video we use to create the DVD or Blu-ray master, otherwise sync issues may occur. If your video starts at an hour, the subtitles must start at an hour.
For Blu-ray, subtitles must be submitted as a XML file with PNGs, 8 bit, 256 color, with a 3 frame buffer (both video and subtitle file should be set to 00:00:00:00). Again, the same master used to create the subtitles must be the same we use for the Blu-ray master. Our Blu-ray software is Scenarist BD Studio and subtitles must be created to be compatible with that program. Request a custom quote to add subtitles to your video project.
*Subtitles cannot be added to a finished master without disassembling the master and re-authoring. Additional charges apply.
What software do we use?
We use a variety of software programs and equipment. For DVD, we use a combination of Apple DVD Studio Pro, Apple Compressor, Apple Final Cut, Adobe Encore, Adobe Premier, and Adobe Media Encoder. For tape-based video we use The Pioneer LX1 hardware encoder. For Blu-ray we use Scenarist BD Studio. See all of our authoring services.
Can you edit my video?
Yes. The Authoring House can provide editing and graphic creation services. See all of our post-production services.
Can I add audio commentary, and/or alternate language tracks?
We can add additional/alternate language tracks or director’s commentaries to your DVD or Blu-ray project. DVDs and Blu-rays can only play one audio track at a time meaning they cannot mix two or more tracks together on playback. Each track must be self-contained and mixed accordingly. If the feature audio is to be included with the commentary, then they must be mixed together into one track before submitting for authoring. Audio length must match program length to retain sync or a countdown, and sync mark must be provided. Audio should be 16 bit 48k. We can accept higher bitrates if desired. Get a custom quote online.
Can you make copies of my DVDs or Blu-ray discs when my authoring project is complete?
Yes! In fact, we recommend it. The Authoring House operates on premises, inside Disc Makers, the nation’s leading optical disc manufacturer, in Pennsauken, NJ. We offer both disc duplication and replication. We can seamlessly move your project from authoring to final manufactured DVDs or Blu-rays, quickly, efficiently and cost-effectively. Disc Makers offers an array of full-color, high-quality DVD and Blu-ray packaging options to choose from, including custom DVDigipaks. Manufacturing your discs at Disc Makers after using The Authoring House guarantees nothing gets lost in transit, and will cut down on your turn time by going somewhere else. See our DVD packaging. See our Blu-ray packaging.
Do I get my authoring parts back when the job is finished?
If desired, The Authoring House will return your authoring parts (drives, discs, videotapes) after the job is completed.
Can I come back and make changes to my master in the future?
The Authoring House at Disc Makers will keep a copy of your authored project for a fixed time. We do not keep copies of the original video due to the size and storage limitations. However, if you do want to make future changes, we should be able to accommodate you. You may be required to resubmit certain elements, if not all, depending on the changes required.
What’s the difference between a DVD-5 and the DVD-9?
There are many types of DVDs, the most popular being the DVD-5 and the DVD-9. These two types of DVDs would encompass the majority of Standard Definition DVDs you buy and rent. The main difference between the two is the amount of data or information each can contain. A DVD-5 can hold up to 4.7 GB (Gigabytes) of data as compared to a DVD-9, which can hold up to 8.4GB. This roughly translates into 2 hours and 4 hours of video respectively. The second difference is the physical makeup of the disc. The DVD-5 is a single layer disc (one layer of data) vs. the DVD-9, which is a dual layer disc. The bottom layer of the DVD-9 is referred to as Layer 0 and is read first. The top layer is referred to as layer 1 and is read last. Layer 0 is a semi-transparent layer, which allows the DVD laser to read through it and acquire the data on layer 1.
What’s the difference in how a laser reads a DVD-5 vs a DVD-9?
When reading a DVD-5, the DVD player’s laser always starts at the inside (center) of the disc and reads outward. On a DVD-9, as with the 5, the laser will always read inside out for layer 0 (the bottom layer). But since there are 2 layers on the 9, when finished reading layer 0 the laser must readjust its depth to read layer 1 (referred to as the layer break). Unlike with layer 0, the DVD author, or programmer, can control which direction the laser will read layer 1. OTP (Opposite Track Path) the laser acquires layer 1 and reads from the outside edge of the disc towards the inside. PTP (Parallel Track Path) reads layer 1 in the same direction as, or parallel to, layer 0 from the inside out. The former is more preferable because it results in a shorter pause at the layer break. The pause is shorter because with PTP the laser has to retrace back to the center of the disc in order to start reading layer 1. With OTP, the laser is already at the outside edge of the disc and can then adjust depth and begin reading layer 1 relatively quickly. Most likely you have seen the layer break and not known it. The next time you rent a DVD from Redbox® or Netflix™, watch for a point during the movie where the video pauses for a second or two and them resumes playing. This will usually occur at the beginning or end of a scene to make it less noticeable for the viewer.
How do you create maximum compatibility with a DVD-9?
Creating a DVD with maximum compatibility involves more than just building your DVD and burning it to a DVD-(+)R. This is especially true when creating a DVD-9 master. The outside edge of a DVD disc is the most difficult part for the DVD player to read. For this reason the DVD Specification, which outlines rigorous standards for data on the physical makeup of DVD discs, specifies how far towards the outer edge of the disc that data can be written. The exact specification is 58mm from the inside of the disc (or a 58mm radius). Any data written outside the 58mm radius may cause the DVD to skip, stutter, or not play beyond that point. When supplying a DLT tape or DDP on DVD master, this is not an issue, because you can control where the layer break occurs. However, supplying your master on a DVD-+(-)DL can be problematic. Originally the DVD-DL conformed to the 58mm radius specification. However, in an attempt to put more data on a DVD-DL, manufacturers have pushed beyond the 58mm restrictions and allow data to be written further towards the edge of the disc. This may result in a disc that fails due to the aforementioned issues.
What is the best method for supplying a DVD-9 master for replication?
The absolute best method for supplying a DVD-9 master to your replicator is on 2 DLT tapes (1 tape per layer) or DDPs on 2 DVD-R 5s. DLT tapes contain DDP (Data Description Protocol) files, a file format utilized by disc manufacturers to make a glass master. The DDP contains all the assets and information about the DVD including region codes, copy protection, and layer break information, something a DVD-DL will not contain. (Refer to Region codes and copy protection above for more info.) DVD authoring applications may have the ability to write to DLT tapes but requires purchasing a DLT machine. There are limitations to the type of machine and tape a replicator will accept. If you do not want to go the route of a DLT, with DVD Studio Pro™ you can write DDP files to DVD+(-) R discs. These DDPs are the same files you would write to a DLT. As with a DLT, a DVD-9 will require 2 DDPs on discs, one for each layer. Please call 1-800-468-9353 to inquire about DDPs on disc and for their specific submission requirements, or request a custom quote online.
Another but somewhat less reliable way to supply your DVD-9 master is on a DVD+(-)DL. Previously the only way to submit a DVD-9 master to a replication facility was on a DLT (Digital Linear Tape). But within the past few years, facilities have been accepting Dual layer recordable DVDs. These discs may or may not produce a suitable master. It’s important to understand that layer break information formatted in programs such as DVD Studio Pro™ do not carry over when burned to a DVD-DL (unlike with DDPs). The layer break is controlled by whatever disc burning software you use. Some programs will let you set the layer break and others will simply write to layer 0 until it is filled, then writes the remaining data to layer 1. This may result in data being written outside of the 58mm radius limitation leading to disc failure. If you have burning software that will let you set the layer break, you will need to calculate where the break will happen. For OTP DVDs layer 0 needs to be filled. This translates to 2,085,472 sectors or approx 4.07 GB. Placing the layer break beyond this point will result in violating the 58mm radius limitation.
If you cannot supply DLTs or DDPs on Disc, or don’t have software that will let you control the layer break, the only other way is to supply your DVD-9 master is on a DVD+R DL disc (not a DVD–R DL). Through testing, we have discovered that some DVD-DL discs allow data to be written outside the 58mm radius. However, at the time of this writing, we have found that DVD+R DL discs are more reliable than –Rs and keep data within 58mm radius limitation (manufacturer’s product is subject to change and may in the future not be reliable as a DVD-9 master format. Testing on your part is required and Disc Makers holds no responsibility for any manufacturers recordable media, masters submitted on DVD-DL media, and Layer Break placement.) So, if you have no other option, try submitting your master on a DVD+R DL. You won’t have control over where the layer break falls, but you may be able to keep data within the 58mm radius limitation.
If you want to ensure your DVD-9 will be within the DVD specification and want precise control over the layer break, the only sure-fire way to do this is with DDPs on DLTs or DDPs on DVDs. If you must submit your master on a DVD+(-)R, follow these FAQ guidelines and you will increase your odds that your project will be a success. Before sending your master in, test it on as many DVD players as possible to make sure it performs the way you expect it to.